## Lajos Soukup

*Pcf theory and cardinal invariants of the reals*

Comment.Math.Univ.Carolin. 52,1 (2011) 153-162.**Abstract:**The {\it additivity spectrum\/} $\operatorname{ADD}(\mathcal{I})$ of an ideal $\mathcal{I}\subset \mathcal{P}(I)$ is the set of all regular cardinals $\kappa$ such that there is an increasing chain $\{A_\alpha:\alpha<\kappa\}\subset \mathcal{I}$ with $\bigcup_{\alpha<\kappa}A_\alpha\notin \mathcal{I}$. We investigate which set $A$ of regular cardinals can be the additivity spectrum of certain ideals. Assume that $\mathcal{I}=\mathcal{B}$ or $\mathcal{I}=\mathcal{N}$, where $\mathcal{B}$ denotes the ${\sigma}$-ideal generated by the compact subsets of the Baire space $\omega^\omega$, and $\mathcal{N}$ is the ideal of the null sets. We show that if $A$ is a non-empty progressive set of uncountable regular cardinals and $\operatorname{pcf}(A)=A$, then $\operatorname{ADD}(\mathcal{I})=A$ in some c.c.c generic extension of the ground model. On the other hand, we also show that if $A$ is a countable subset of $\operatorname{ADD}(\mathcal{I})$, then $\operatorname{pcf}(A)\subset \operatorname{ADD}(\mathcal{I})$. For countable sets these results give a full characterization of the additivity spectrum of $\mathcal{I}$: a non-empty countable set $A$ of uncountable regular cardinals can be $\operatorname{ADD}(\mathcal{I})$ in some c.c.c generic extension iff $A=\operatorname{pcf}(A)$.

**Keywords:** cardinal invariants, reals, pcf theory, null sets, meager sets, Baire space, additivity

**AMS Subject Classification:** 03E04 03E17 03E35

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